According to their data, study participants who skipped breakfast were also more likely to be smokers or former smokers, heavier drinkers, unhealthy eaters with low-diet quality, and leading a less active lifestyle.
To gather their findings, researchers at the University of Iowa collected information from 6,550 people from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1988 to 1994. They were asked, "how often do you eat breakfast?" and possible answers included, "every day", "some days", "rarely" and "never".
"Our findings are in line with and supported by previous studies that consistently showed that skipping breakfast is related to those strong risk factors for cardiovascular death".
After fully adjusting for covariates, adults who never ate breakfast had a hazard ratio of 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99-1.42) for all-cause mortality and a hazard ratio of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.14-3.04) for cardiovascular mortality.
Researchers said skipping breakfast was associated with changes in appetite and feeling less full, elevated blood pressure and harmful changes in lipid or cholesterol levels.
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Bao, who is an assistant professor of epidemiology at the University of Iowa, said that the study took into consideration the age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, diet, lifestyle, body mass index and disease status of each participant.
Bao said that it is a traditional belief that breakfast is one of the most important parts of everyday meal but they have less data available which can assure this belief. "Our paper is among the ones that provide evidence to support long-term benefits". In case you didn't know (because I didn't), epidemiologists are, "public health professionals who investigate patterns and causes of disease and injury in humans." .
Meals skipped during intermittent fasting and the breakfast skipped in this study are not the same, these are two different concepts and practices: intermittent fasting involves cycling between long periods of not eating and regular eating to restrict caloric intake which is suggested to reduce risk of obesity and related disease. These disorders are risk factors that lead strongly to cardiovascular death.
"Breakfast is believed to be an important meal of the day, whereas there has been an increasing prevalence of skipping breakfast over the past 50 years", the team wrote.